Sunday, 22 November 2015

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3.Who constructed Jantar-Mantar in Jaipur?

Ans-Jai Singh II

Explaination:Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh (November 3, 1688 – September 21, 1743) was the Rajput ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur). He was born at Amber, the capital of the Kachwahas. He became ruler of Amber at the age of 11 after his father Maharaja Bishan Singh died on 31 December 1699. On 21 April 1721, the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah bestowed upon him the title of Saramad-i-Rajaha-i-Hind and on 2 June 1723, the emperor further bestowed him the titles of Raj Rajeshvar, Shri Rajadhiraj and Maharaja Sawai.[1] "Sawai" means one and a quarter times superior to his contemporaries. These titles adorn his descendants even to this date. He had a great interest in mathematics, architecture and astronomy.
The Jantar Mantar monument of Jaipur, Rajasthan is a collection of nineteen architectural astronomical instruments, built by the Rajput king Sawai Jai Singh, and completed in 1738 CE.[1][2] It features the world's largest stone sundial, and is a UNESCO World Heritage site.[1][3]
Located near City Palace and Hawa Mahal of Jaipur, the monument features masonry, stone and brass instruments that were built using astronomy and instrument design principles of ancient Hindu Sanskrit texts, and with data from Islamic astronomy during the Mughal Empire.[2][4] The instruments allow the observation of astronomical positions with the naked eye. The monument expresses architectural innovations, as well as the coming together of ideas from different religious and social beliefs in 18th century India.[1] The observatory is an example of the Ptolemaic positional astronomy which was shared by many civilizations.[1][2]
The monument features instruments operating in each of the three main classical celestial coordinate systems: the horizon-zenith local system, the equatorial system and the ecliptic system.[2] The Kapala Yantraprakara is one that works in two systems and allows transformation of the coordinates directly from one system to the other.[5]
The monument was damaged in the 19th century. Early restoration work was undertaken under the supervision of Major Arthur Garrett, a keen amateur astronomer, during his appointment as Assistant State Engineer for the Jaipur District.