Explaination:Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh (November 3, 1688 – September 21, 1743) was the Rajput ruler of the kingdom of Amber (later called Jaipur). He was born at Amber, the capital of the Kachwahas. He became ruler of Amber at the age of 11 after his father MaharajaBishan Singh died on 31 December 1699. On 21 April 1721, the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah bestowed upon him the title of Saramad-i-Rajaha-i-Hind and on 2 June 1723, the emperor further bestowed him the titles of Raj Rajeshvar, Shri Rajadhiraj and Maharaja Sawai. "Sawai"
means one and a quarter times superior to his contemporaries. These
titles adorn his descendants even to this date. He had a great interest
in mathematics, architecture and astronomy.
The Jantar Mantar monument of Jaipur, Rajasthan is a
collection of nineteen architectural astronomical instruments, built by
the Rajput king Sawai Jai Singh, and completed in 1738 CE. It features the world's largest stone sundial, and is a UNESCO World Heritage site.
Located near City Palace and Hawa Mahal
of Jaipur, the monument features masonry, stone and brass instruments
that were built using astronomy and instrument design principles of
ancient Hindu Sanskrit texts, and with data from Islamic astronomy
during the Mughal Empire.
The instruments allow the observation of astronomical positions with
the naked eye. The monument expresses architectural innovations, as well
as the coming together of ideas from different religious and social
beliefs in 18th century India. The observatory is an example of the Ptolemaic positional astronomy which was shared by many civilizations.
The monument features instruments operating in each of the three main classical celestial coordinate systems: the horizon-zenith local system, the equatorial system and the ecliptic system. The Kapala Yantraprakara is one that works in two systems and allows transformation of the coordinates directly from one system to the other.
The monument was damaged in the 19th century. Early restoration work was undertaken under the supervision of Major Arthur Garrett, a keen amateur astronomer, during his appointment as Assistant State Engineer for the Jaipur District.
The Indus-Ganga plain is bound on the north by the Himalayas which feed its numerous rivers and are the source of the fertile alluvium deposited across the region by the two river systems. The southern edge of the plain is marked by the Chota Nagpur Plateau. On the west rises the Iranian Plateau.
Scince and Technology
Electrical and Computer science
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